Shakespeare acted as an augur when using bird imagery to foreshadow upcoming events. The augur was a priest and official in ancient Rome. His main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or seen alone, what noises they make as they fly, the direction of flight, and what kind of birds they were. This evaluation was known as "taking the auspices.”
In Act IV, Scene I, Shakespeare is referring to a red letter day (any day of special significance) when Macbeth states, “… Let this pernicious hour stand aye accursed in the calendar!” (149 – 150).* Macbeth is referring to the news from the witches that tell him of eight kings descended from Banquo (instead of Macbeth.) The witches tell Macbeth many things that he cannot understand; yet, the witches are telling Macbeth the truth…
Composed probably in 1606, Shakespeare’s use of the word “epicure” in "Macbeth" is particularly interesting because at that time, “epicure” was considered “archaic” that is, rare in the early 1600s present-day usage. The meaning of Shakespeare’s “epicure” is taken from the philosophy of an ancient Greek philosopher, Epicurus (341–270 B.C.E.) An “epicure” is a person that disbelieves in God (the divine government of the world,) and in an afterlife spent in either Heaven or Hell; this is also a person who recognizes no religious motives for conduct.
In Act V, Scene XI of "Macbeth," Siward learns of his son’s death from Ross. Siward tells Ross and Maclcolm that he was glad that his son died the honorable death of a soldier saying: “And so his knell is knolled.” Shakespeare is using complex figurative language here to express reverence surrounding Malcolm’s son’s death.
In Act IV, Scene III of Shakespeare’s “The Tragedy of Macbeth,” Malcolm tells Macduff that even someone who has morals and integrity may cave under the pressure of a demand from their king. Malcolm is referring to Lucifer (the Devil.) In most religious traditions, Lucifer is considered the most intelligent (the brightest as in genius) and the most outstanding (the brightest or best) of God’s angels. In addition, Malcolm is saying that Macbeth was once the brightest and best and now he acts a lot like Lucifer.
In Act IV Scene III of William Shakespeare’s historical play Henry V, King Henry (Harry) delivers a speech that reflects a certain patriotic glory. The soldiers of the U.S. Army 101st Airborne division commonly refer to themselves as a “Band of Brothers” a line found in this speech. Read Henry’s speech below and ask yourself why Twenty-first century soldiers would identify with its Sixteenth-century sentiments; particularly the lines, “We few, we happy few, we band of brothers. / For he today that sheds his blood with me / Shall be my brother.”
Even before I had heard about the Shakespeare Behind Bars program, I was astonished at how powerful Shakespeare’s words are. Shakespeare has inspired many people I personally know. The plays have entertained and delighted audiences for centuries. But in my wildest dreams I would have never believed how life-changing being a part of a Shakespeare production could be. Matt Wallace, Director of the program says this about the inmates: “Their courage and character continue to inspire me.”
One may believe that there isn’t much room for “improv” in a Shakespeare production because the text that is, Shakespeare’s words are usually the star of the show. Directors have cut lines to modernize some of the plays to a manageable two-hour performance (Stratford is notorious for this method.) Purists argue that it just isn’t Shakespeare when artistic adjustments are made – whatever the reason. I admit that simultaneously I am intrigued by and repulsed by the thought of removing scenes or lines. Matt Wallace found a workable balance in his Shakespeare Behind Bar’s production of The Merchant of Venice.
One of the most striking observations about the actors in the Shakespeare Behind Bars program is that because they usually have never actually seen the play staged that they are rehearsing, their emotions are pure and unaffected by others’ performances, which gives their interpretation a nuance rarely seen or attempted in this Twenty-first Century world of You Tube, mp3, Netflix, and Internet television channels.
Because Shakespeare’s works reflect the humanity of individuals and show the singular events in life that can take one on a new and different path, who better to stage his works than Matt Wallace, director of Shakespeare Behind Bars, who works with inmates that interpret the events in life demonstrated by Shakespeare? This is in of itself a case of meta-theatricality; inmates are playing parts that encompass moral dilemmas and crime – perhaps even issues that they have directly faced – giving them the opportunity to explore their feelings unlike any typical therapy program could offer.